There are several types surgery that can restore blood flow to the brain by providing new collateral blood supply either directly or indirectly. These surgeries are known as revascularization since they provide new sources of blood supplies to the brain.
Direct blood supply can be provided by connecting a scalp artery to a cerebral branch (STA-MCA). Creating the connection between the two blood vessels is called anastomosis.
Indirect techniques can involve placing dura (membrane that surrounds the brain and spinal cord) and muscle on the brain surface which then grows new connections to the brain.
While children usually respond better to revascularization surgery than adults, the majority of individuals have no further strokes or related problems after surgery.
Without surgery, the majority of individuals with Moyamoya disease will experience mental decline and multiple strokes because of the progressive narrowing of arteries.
Without treatment, Moyamoya disease can be fatal as the result of a large intracerebral hemorrhage.