Treatment of tics depends on the degree of movement-related disability. Treatments include psychotherapy, medication, and surgery. Not all patients require therapy.
Medication Treatment Options:
Medications such as haloperidol, primozide, and clonidine can help to control the tics. However most do not eliminate tics completely and all have side effects such as sedation.
Botulinum Toxin Injections
Botox injections are sometimes effective for simple motor tics. Botulinum is a toxin that is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. It is injected into specific muscles to reduce tics by weakening the muscles. This effect last several months, at which time the injection may be repeated. These cannot be used for vocal or complex tics.
This type of therapy can be useful in addition to medications. This helps control disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that may contribute to tics. Therapy also helps individuals cope better with the tics.
Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS)
Deep brain stimulation surgery has been tried in a few patients with severe tic disorders and has been shown to be effective in these small groups. It is being actively studied in larger groups but it is still considered experimental for the treatment of tic disorders.